The pyramid for American Indians Figure 3—2d suggests that that population has undergone dramatic changes in age composition since ; however, changes in self-identification probably influenced changes in age composition as well.
If we included all relatives in the sample, a person with six designated relatives living in "Native areas" would have a higher chance of selection than a person with one such relative.
Telephone response as a follow-up option.
The requirement for effort at complete enumeration does not necessarily rule out the increased use of sampling as part of the census.
Another possibility for studying the Native American population is to use samples drawn for very large government surveys and to add some questions pertinent to Native concerns.Even with plausible assumptions about errors in the estimated numbers of births or deaths or changes in the net undercounting of the Native American populations in the and censuses, the estimated increase in numbers of Native Americans was still implausible. Nearly all participants were familiar with the soap opera. The Problem Of Cultural Subgroups Native Americans and Alaska Natives are culturally diverse, a conclusion based on both general understanding and reports of people who have worked with them e. Two articles that appeared in the opinion section of The Times over the past few years made the case that misleading statistical artifacts used by the Census Bureau have increased the fear of a majority-minority America, a fear that played a crucial role in the election. On the other hand, self-identification involves problems of unreliability; for example, people who identify with a particular race on one survey may not do so again when offered the same choice at a later date. Instead, estimates for the usual subclasses defined by variables such as age, sex, education, and income are sufficient. Making census questionnaires more widely available by placing unaddressed questionnaires in accessible locations e. While Census Bureau reports and other commentaries frequently describe Native Americans as one group, there are important cultural and historical differences among Native groups. It also provides new estimates for certain subgroups, including Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans and Venezuelans. Coverage measurement, which includes sampling, statistical estimation based on the sampling, and statistical modeling, will be integrated with the other census-taking operations. Between and , over 29, persons aged 18 and over were interviewed for the General Social Survey Davis and Smith, For example, the designers of the Strong Heart Study Lee et al. It is estimated that the Census missed 8. In some cases, there might not be enough space on the form to list every person living in the largest households. Following up in the Washington Post in , Alba addressed the interrelated questions of how mixed-race Americans classify themselves, how the census classifies them and how the census classification deals with the offspring of racially and ethnically mixed parents.
Inmore than 15 percent of the American Indian population were less than 5 years old; bythe percentage was almost half that, at just over 8 percent; at this time, data are also included for Alaska Natives. More intensive percent follow-up and higher sampling fractions would raise costs but reduce the spread of errors in small areas.
If the decision is to include only persons on tribal rolls or those with specified numbers of Native American or Alaska Native parents or grandparents, it is likely that the total population will be substantially less than the 2 million counted by the census.Journal of the American Statistical Association Truncation of Enumeration After a Reasonable Effort Reduced intensity of physical enumeration, which we label truncation, when combined with statistical estimation techniques to complete the count, far from degrading the overall quality of the census, will improve the accuracy of the final count of the nation as a whole, for large demographic groups, and for populous areas. The second serious effect of very early truncation is the problem of perception and misunderstanding, noted above. Using "best estimates" of the numbers of Native American births and deaths between and and assuming that international migration was negligible, he found that Native American population growth could not be accounted for by demographic factors. The census test will also examine the quality of the census address lists, in a cooperative venture in which U. Juliani The problem is that the first of these groups is nearly 20 times larger than the second. For example, the designers of the Strong Heart Study Lee et al. Nearly all participants were familiar with the soap opera. Ngoc, A. But the possibilities of substantial sampling error in any given small area, which would result in either an overestimate or underestimate of the count for that area, would be high.
This process would be costly and error prone. In fact, the Census found that of the A substantial program to track down those who do not respond by the designated date is carried out using census enumerators, but with significantly less intensity and of shorter duration than in the first approach.
Census, In particular, the results from coverage measurement will be fully integrated into the official census estimates Miskura,