Commercial, scientific and technological dependence of the speakers of certain languages on the speakers of other languages.
Example of a Tulu speaker: o Although it is spoken by two million people, it is still restricted in its functional range. Language of education, administration, commerce, media and literature.
The larger the number of desired roles a language enables its speakers to play in a given society, the higher its place on the hierarchy.
The first is the existence of a large body of literature in a language that is similar to or the same as the indigenous language.
Societal multilingualism pdf
Unpublished Ph. The second reason is cultural contact. Code switching and code mixing as a communicative strategy in multilingual discourse. It has been stated that in diglossia people are quite aware that they have switched from H to L or vice-versa. In this connection we can further distinguish between official multilingualism and de facto multilingualism. As we have seen above, code-switching and code-mixing are widely attested, natural manifestations of language contact, and these are functionally and formally systematic behaviors. This perspective of shifting, overlapping, intersecting, complementing identities is particularly suited to the characterization of multilingual speech communities. As an international language, English is being used increasingly in non- native contexts. Language of education, administration, commerce, media and literature. An awareness and understanding of societal multilingualism is crucial to any program in second language teaching and bilingual education. Gujarati spice merchant in Bombay uses Kathiawadi his dialect of Gujarati with his family, Marathi the local language in the vegetable market, Kacchi and Konkani in trading circles, Hindi or Hindustani with the milkman and at the train station, and even English on formal occasions. The central mechanism involved here is language transfer, which is a powerful force in language change, language acquisition and language use in multilingual communities. Bright Ed. Language use in a Chicano community: A sociolinguistic approach. Sridhar, S.
Triglossia and Swahili-English bilingualism in Tanzania. Masica, C. As a societal phenomenon, one is concerned with bilingualism in its institutional dimensions, i. It's easy to mingle when you are bilingual.
Obviously, such writing presupposes multilingual competence on the part of the readers. This is in part a function of differential command of registers functional varieties but also of habitual associations between languages and contexts. Fishman, J.
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